Global and geographical data
Position on the globe Madagascar is the 4th largest island in the world, it is located in the Indian Ocean at 400 km off the southeastern coast of Africa (Mozambique and Tanzania) and it is straddling the Tropic of Capricorn
Time zone GMT+3
Area 587.295 km² (INSTAT)
Length from the North to the South 1.600 km (between Cap Sainte Marie at the south and Cap d’Ambre at the north)
Width from the east to the west 570 km (in its largest width size)
Coastal length 5.000 km
Political capital Antananarivo (Tananarive, Tanà)
Administrative division Decentralized local government : 22 regions, 119 districts, 1.579 communes and 17.485 townships
Official languages Malagasy, Français, Anglais
National language (mother tongue) Malagasy
Currency Ariary (abbreviations: Ar or MGA)
Independence day June 26th

Madagacar has a tropical type of climate with two different seasons in general :

  • Hot and humid summer: from November to April ;
  • Fresh and dry winter: from May to October.

However, some areas of the central plateau may have a temperate climate and the complete four seasons. It rains almost throughout the year in the eastern region to reach an annual precipitation up to 4.000 mm/year. On the contrary, the south is a very barren area with a recorded rainfall around 200 mm/ year.

Population 23 571 713 hab (World Bank, 2014)
Density 40,52 hab/km² (World Bank, 2014)
Population growth 2,78% (World Bank, 2014)
Life expectancy 64 years (World Bank, 2014)
  • 52% : Traditional belief based on the respect of ancestors
  • 41% : Christian, mainly Catholic and Protestant
  • 7% : Muslims
Economic indicators
GDP per capita (USD) 444.96 (INSTAT, 2014)
Growth rate (%)

Primary sector

Secondary sector


(INSTAT, 2014)




Inflation rate (%) 7.4 (INSTAT, 2015)
Exports (billion USD FOB) 1.382 (INSTAT, 2015)
Imports (billion USD CIF) 1.922 (INSTAT, 2015)
Major trading partners France, United States , Singapore, China, Germany, Canada, India, Italy, United Kingdom, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, the United Arab Emirates, South Africa, Mauritius, Thailand, Bahrein
Main investment partners Canada, Japan, South Korea, France, China, Mauritius, Italy, Switzerland, Reunion Island, Luxemburg, United Kingdom, India, South Africa, Sweden, Hong Kong
Foreign Direct Investment (billion USD) (prevision for the 1st quarter 2014, Central Bank of Madagascar, INSTAT)

Flows: 210.37

Stock: 4 470.62

Ranking DBI 2016 164th
Time required to start a business 4 days