Presentation of Madagascar

14 Sep 2017
Global and geographical data
Position on the globeMadagascar is the 4th largest island in the world, it is located in the Indian Ocean at 400 km off the southeastern coast of Africa (Mozambique and Tanzania) and it is straddling the Tropic of Capricorn
Time zoneGMT+3
Area587.295 km² (INSTAT)
Length from the North to the South1.600 km (between Cap Sainte Marie at the south and Cap d’Ambre at the north)
Width from the east to the west570 km (in its largest width size)
Coastal length5.000 km
Political capitalAntananarivo (Tananarive, Tanà)
Administrative divisionDecentralized local government : 22 regions, 119 districts, 1.579 communes and 17.485 townships
Official languagesMalagasy, Français, Anglais
National language (mother tongue)Malagasy
CurrencyAriary (abbreviations: Ar or MGA)
Independence dayJune 26th

Madagacar has a tropical type of climate with two different seasons in general :

  • Hot and humid summer: from November to April ;
  • Fresh and dry winter: from May to October.

However, some areas of the central plateau may have a temperate climate and the complete four seasons. It rains almost throughout the year in the eastern region to reach an annual precipitation up to 4.000 mm/year. On the contrary, the south is a very barren area with a recorded rainfall around 200 mm/ year.

Population23 571 713 hab (World Bank, 2014)
Density40,52 hab/km² (World Bank, 2014)
Population growth2,78% (World Bank, 2014)
Life expectancy64 years (World Bank, 2014)
  • 52% : Traditional belief based on the respect of ancestors
  • 41% : Christian, mainly Catholic and Protestant
  • 7% : Muslims
Economic indicators
GDP per capita (USD)444.96 (INSTAT, 2014)
Growth rate (%)

Primary sector

Secondary sector


(INSTAT, 2014)




Inflation rate (%)7.4 (INSTAT, 2015)
Exports (billion USD FOB)1.382 (INSTAT, 2015)
Imports (billion USD CIF)1.922 (INSTAT, 2015)
Major trading partnersFrance, United States , Singapore, China, Germany, Canada, India, Italy, United Kingdom, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, the United Arab Emirates, South Africa, Mauritius, Thailand, Bahrein
Main investment partnersCanada, Japan, South Korea, France, China, Mauritius, Italy, Switzerland, Reunion Island, Luxemburg, United Kingdom, India, South Africa, Sweden, Hong Kong
Foreign Direct Investment (billion USD)(prevision for the 1st quarter 2014, Central Bank of Madagascar, INSTAT)

Flows: 210.37

Stock: 4 470.62

Ranking DBI 2016164th
Time required to start a business4 days